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This table outlines some of the common lab tests ordered by endocrinologists & provides some information about them.

TestWhat it meansAverage/Normal range
Creatinine (Cr)A waste product of metabolism: excreted by the kidney: if it is ↑means kidney function is lower.Usually < 1.1 to 1.3
eGFRAn estimate of kidney function. Calculated based on age, gender, Cr, weight may overestimate loss of kidney function>60-90 depending on protein in the urine
Micro-albumin/ Creatinine Ratio  Urine test to determine “early” damage to the kidney from high blood glucose or blood pressure< 30 mg/ gm
Creatinine, urineDoes not directly indicate kidney disease is affected by body size and the volume of the urineRange ~ 600 mg to ~ 3 grams /day
ALT AST Alkaline Phosphatase  Liver enzymes↑ levels may mean liver disease often mild-moderate ↑ in “fatty liver” in overweight or diabetic patientsUsually – but not always- 2-3 x values may indicate medical liver disease.
Bilirubin (yellow pigment)Produced when red blood cells break down. The liver takes it up & excretes it in the bile may be ↑ in liver disease or hemolysis or↑ levels in: Liver diseaseHemolysisGilbert syndrome
TSHMeasures pituitary hormone that tells the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormone precisely according to our body’s need↑ level means “low thyroid hormone level↓ level means “too much thyroid hormone”Range
(0.5 to 2.5 or so)
Free T4The actual thyroid hormone level may be “normal” in mild cases of overactive or underactive thyroidRange (0.8 to 1.8)
Free T3One of the thyroid hormone (active form)Blood levels is not always reliable and useful if investigating overactive thyroid.Range (2.4-4.2)
A1cAverage blood glucose over the last 3 monthsNormal <5.7 Prediabetes: 5.7-6.4 Diabetes: ≥ 6.4
C-peptideLevels indicate blood insulin levels (↓ type 1 diabetes   ↑ insulin resistance)Range (Fasting) 0.5 to 2 ng/mL
Lipid Panel LDL-C HDL-C Triglyceride Cholesterol/HDL ratioMeasures blood fat levels “bad cholesterol good cholesterol” and “other fat” Measures cardiac riskDesirable LDL-C<100 mg/dL HDL-C>55 mg/dL TG <150-199 mg/dL Chol/HDL<4.0
Testosterone Total T Free T Bioavailable T Levels in MENLevel of the male sex hormone: Initial test More accurate biologically More consistent /accurate  300 to 1000 ng/dL6.6 to 21.5pg/mL
Female Hormone Levels ESTRADIOL Luteinizing Hormone Follicle Stim Hormone   PROGESTERONE    Measures the dominant estrogen Pituitary hormones stimulate ovaries to produce estrogen & progesterone     Ovarian hormone useful in checking ovulation  E2: 27 – 161 pg/mL LH: 2 to 10 mIU/mL FSH: 3 to 9mIU/L   P4:5-20 ng/mL(Day 21)
ProlactinThe pituitary hormone stimulates milk production & and ↑ it reduces LH/FSH & testosterone & estrogen levels. Can be from medications or a pituitary tumour.Normal <20 ng/mL
DHEASA weak androgen made by the adrenal gland Decreases by age Mildly ↑ – possibly PCOS Very ↑↑- adrenal tumourNormal (age dependent) >700 ug/dL – r/o adrenal tumor
Cortisol (Blood)The main hormone (stress hormone) is made by the adrenal gland. Best measured ~8 am. Usually, the normal range may include some patients with adrenal disordersNormal 5-20 ug/dL (actually ~ 10-20ug/dL)
Cortisol (Saliva) Usually at 11 pm at homeAt 11 pm, it should be low. ↑ in Cushing syndromeNormal <0.09 mcg/dL
Parathyroid (PTHi)A hormone which helps the body manage calcium balance.Normal 14-65 pg/mL
CTX (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen)The blood test measures bone turnover (bone loss)Normal 300-600 pg/mL
FerritinThe storage form of Iron. Useful in diagnosing iron deficiency anaemia (usual ferritin will be <30 mcg/L)  Range: Men:24-336 mcg/L Women: 11-307 mcg/L

This information is for general knowledge & is not a substitute for medical advice your doctor recommends

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